Sodexo’s strategy to make diversity a priority to advance its business goals was the recent subject of a case study published by the Harvard Business School. Authored by Professor David Thomas and Research Associate Stephanie Creary, the case study will be used to stimulate class discussions at the school. This brief summary is intended to provide you with a snapshot of how Sodexo’s diversity and inclusion strategies are viewed by the outside world.
Pierre Bellon founded Sodexo in 1966 in Marseille, France to provide food services to companies, schools and hospitals, and shortly thereafter, Sodexo expanded the scope of its business to remote site management as well. Sodexo expanded its business within Europe, Africa, and the Middle East and became a public company in 1983. The following 25 years saw Sodexo expand geographically (including the Americas, South Africa, and Russia) through organic growth and acquisitions. In 1998, Marriott International’s food service division merged with Sodexo’s North America division to form Sodexo Marriott Services, which Sodexo acquired in full in 2001. In 2005, Michel Landel, one of Sodexo’s chief operating officers, was named CEO, succeeding Bellon, who retained his role as chairman of the board. Today, Sodexo is the 21st largest employer in the world with nearly 400,000 employees working in 34,000 sites in multiple lines of business in 80 different countries. Every day, Sodexo employees touch the lives of 50 million customers. The company generates more than €16 billion or $20 billion in annual revenue, 95 percent of that from its On-site Service Solutions business.
hy do so many organizations fail to learn? According to the author, such failures may be caused not by resistance to change, human nature, or poor leadership, but by the lack of communication among three cultures: operating, engineering, and executive. The culture of operators is based on human interaction. Operators may use their learning ability to thwart management's efforts to improve productivity. The engineering culture represents the design elements of the technology underlying the organization and how the technology is to be used. The executive culture revolves around maintaining an organization's financial health and deals with boards, investors, and capital markets. According to the author, when organizations attempt to redesign or reinvent themselves, the cultures collide and failure occurs. Executives and engineers are task focused and assume that people are the problem. Executives band together and depersonalize their employees. Executives and engineers can't agree on how to make organizations work better while keeping costs down. Each culture must learn how to learn and to analyze its own culture. Then enough mutual understanding must be created among the cultures to evolve solutions that all groups can commit to.
Describes the transition to a new CEO at Intuit, a successful software and financial services firm in California. The new CEO must decide what to change and how fast. He must also navigate within a culture everyone believes to be successful but he envisions can be improved.
Harriett Green, the newly appointed CEO of Thomas Cook Group, faces a daunting set of business and financial challenges at the 171-year old UK travel services company. The company has lost almost £600 million in the last three quarters; has seen its stock price fall from 230 pence to a low of 8.8 pence in the past two years; and had seen its bonds trade down to as little as 40% of face value. In just a few weeks the company's license to operate is to be reviewed by the United Kingdom's Civil Aviation Authority, competitors are publicly questioning the company's viability, and seasonal working capital needs are about to peak. With the company's very survival at stake, Green must devise a turnaround plan that will return the company to financial health. Any plan must address the company's high cost structure, raise substantial new capital, fix the balance sheet, create a profitable growth strategy, and build a more effective organization and culture. But achieving all of these objectives within the short time available will be a major challenge.
AMD's launch of the Opteron microprocessor in 2003 has allowed the company to make inroads into the lucrative server segment. A long-time follower to Intel, AMD management felt it was in a position to lead the microprocessor industry in new directions. However, in 2006 it was not clear whether Opteron's success in the server segment would translate into success in other microprocessor segments, notably corporate desktop and laptop, and whether the initial success in servers could be sustained in the future. Intel's imminent new product and pricing plans, as well as its existing brand power, could greatly hamper AMD's growth and thwart its new initiatives--which included opening up its architecture for end users to customize and recast its brand identity. Also examines how a company tries to gain competitive advantage through an approach to innovation that emphasizes customer centricity.
Aqua Logistics Limited, one of India’s leading logistics and supply chain management companies, suffered from poor financial management and was witnessing slowing demand in the industry. The company had significant financial debt to banks and financial institutions. Owing to such difficulties in managing its operations in a largely fragmented industry, the firm — with its strong network in multimodal transport and in the third-party logistics model of delivery — was a good target for companies seeking to consolidate their position in the industry. An acquiring firm, however, would want to answer several questions. What were the possible value drivers of Aqua Logistics Limited? From where would the synergistic gains be realized through an acquisition? How much should be offered for the acquisition?
This case underlines the strategic issues of acquiring a potential target firm and its value drivers. It is intended for courses such as business valuation, corporate finance, security analysis, and mergers and acquisitions. Students will:
SDescribes the different types of management and personal effectiveness competencies and how to develop them. It argues that management competencies are a tool for cultural change.
The proposition that the economic and social wellbeing of society, and those in it, is substantially dependent on the effective and efficient performance of organisations of all kinds, that this in turn depends on adequate or excellent management and leadership capability, and that this in turn can be learnt and developed, would be accepted by many as likely to be true in common sense and everyday observation. It is also the case that organisations of all kinds, Government and Government agencies, and individuals investing in their own development, in the UK and internationally, behave on the basis of this belief, through the very substantial investments that they make in management and leadership education, training and development, and initiatives to support this. Boyatzis et al (1996) estimate the global investment as $37 billion.
Treasure Trophy Company (Treasure) is known for the manufacturing of all types of trophies. These trophies were created for recognition at sporting events, businesses and celebratory affairs. Treasure made it a point to produce their trophies at the time of the order. Sometimes the order was sent straight to retail stores, while other orders were custom made for various coordinators of special events. The new general manager, Bob Morden, needed to set the selling price for two organizations. The Royal Golf Club and the Sterling Yacht Club asked for price quotes before finalizing a contract. Before Morden could give a quote, he needed to know what Treasure’s cost would be for filling the order. Treasure used a job order system of cost accumulation. Treasure’s trophies went through a three step process: forming, finishing, and assembly. The forming department was the first step. Raw materials which was usually plastic was sent through machinery to form molded parts. The next step was the finishing department which took the molded part and did everything to finish the product. This included sanding, polishing, lacquering, gluing decals or even engraving. The final step was the assembly of all the parts of the trophy. Usually parts were glued together to form the trophy. After analyzing Treasure’s background history, it is necessary to evaluate which factors should be included when quoting these two orders. Fixed and variable costs must be allocated properly to achieve appropriate costs. Treasure cannot combine factory and administration costs together, but rather allocate them accordingly to their respective departments.
Today's supply chain managers have been bombarded with a wide variety of the so-called leading-edge supply chain strategies. New terminologies and initiatives are being developed constantly. However, not all of these initiatives or strategies are appropriate for all firms. Companies need first to understand the uncertainties facing the demand and supply of its products and then try to match these uncertainties with the right supply chain strategies. Based on an analysis of the uncertainties of supply and demand facing the firm, this article develops a framework that can assist managers in developing the right supply chain strategy for their products.
The oil industry holds relatively few surprises for strategists. Things change, of course, sometimes dramatically, but in relatively predictable ways. Planners know, for instance, that global supply will rise and fall as geopolitical forces play out and new resources are discovered and exploited. They know that demand will rise and fall with incomes, GDPs, weather conditions, and the like. Because these factors are outside companies’ and their competitors’ control and barriers to entry are so high, no one is really in a position to change the game much. A company carefully marshals its unique capabilities and resources to stake out and defend its competitive position in this fairly stable firmament.
During the past decade and a half, I’ve studied from the inside more than 60 leading companies that focused on building and rebuilding supply chains to deliver goods and services to consumers as quickly and inexpensively as possible. Those firms invested in state-of-the-art technologies, and when that proved to be inadequate, they hired top-notch talent to boost supply chain performance. Many companies also teamed up to streamline processes, lay down technical standards, and invest in infrastructure they could share. For instance, in the early 1990s, American apparel companies started a Quick Response initiative, grocery companies in Europe and the United States touted a program called Efficient Consumer Response, and the U.S. food service industry embarked on an Efficient Foodservice Response program. All those companies and initiatives persistently aimed at greater speed and cost-effectiveness—the popular grails of supply chain management. Of course, companies’ quests changed with the industrial cycle: When business was booming, executives concentrated on maximizing speed, and when the economy headed south, firms desperately tried to minimize supply costs. As time went by, however, I observed one fundamental problem that most companies and experts seemed to ignore: Ceteris paribus, companies whose supply chains became more efficient and cost-effective didn’t gain a sustainable advantage over their rivals. In fact, the performance of those supply chains steadily deteriorated. For instance, despite the increased efficiency of many companies’ supply chains, the percentage of products that were marked down in the United States rose from less than 10% in 1980 to more than 30% in 2000, and surveys show that consumer satisfaction with product availability fell sharply during the same period.
A recent MBA graduate had been renting a condominium, and a similar unit next door had just been listed for sale. Now facing the classic buy-versus-rent decision, the young grad decided it was time for her to apply some of the analytical tools she had acquired in business school - including "time value of money" concepts - to her personal life.
Senior managers are paid to make tough decisions. Much rides on the outcome of those decisions, and executives are judged—quite rightly—on their overall success rate. It’s impossible to eliminate risk from strategic decision making, of course. But we believe that it is possible for executives—and companies—to significantly improve their chances of success by making one straightforward (albeit not simple) change: expanding their tool kit of decision support tools and understanding which tools work best for which decisions. Most companies overrely on basic tools like discounted cash flow analysis or very simple quantitative scenario testing, even when they’re facing highly complex, uncertain contexts. We see this constantly in our consulting and executive education work, and research bears out our impressions. Don’t misunderstand. The conventional tools we all learned in business school are terrific when you’re working in a stable environment, with a business model you understand and access to sound information. They’re far less useful if you’re on unfamiliar terrain—if you’re in a fast-changing industry, launching a new kind of product, or shifting to a new business model. That’s because conventional tools assume that decision makers have access to remarkably complete and reliable information. Yet every business leader we have worked with over the past 20 years acknowledges that more and more decisions involve judgments that must be made with incomplete and uncertain information.
Women now drive the world economy. Globally, they control about $20 trillion in annual consumer spending, and that figure could climb as high as $28 trillion in the next five years. Their $13 trillion in total yearly earnings could reach $18 trillion in the same period. In aggregate, women represent a growth market bigger than China and India combined—more than twice as big, in fact. Given those numbers, it would be foolish to ignore or underestimate the female consumer. And yet many companies do just that, even ones that are confident they have a winning strategy when it comes to women. Consider Dell’s short-lived effort to market laptops specifically to women. The company fell into the classic “make it pink” mind-set with the May 2009 launch of its Della website. The site emphasized colors, computer accessories, and tips for counting calories and finding recipes. It created an uproar among women, who described it as “slick but disconcerting” and “condescending.” The blogosphere reacted quickly to the company’s “very special site for women.” Austin Modine of the online tech publication The Register responded acidly, “If you thought computer shopping was a gender-neutral affair, then you’ve obviously been struck down by an acute case of female hysteria. (Nine out of ten Victorian-age doctors agree.)” The New York Times said that Dell had to go to the “school of marketing hard knocks.” Within weeks of the launch, the company altered the site’s name and focus. “You spoke, we listened,” Dell told users. Kudos to Dell for correcting course promptly, but why didn’t its marketers catch the potentially awkward positioning before the launch?
In an effort to improve its global distribution system and thus enhance customer service in its shops around the world, Laura Ashley entered into a path-breaking strategic alliance with Federal Express Business Logistics Services. Under the terms of a loosely structured partnership, Federal Express essentially takes over the warehouse and distribution activities formerly handled by Laura Ashley. The alliance is path breaking due to its largely informal structure, based more on trust and mutual benefit than on complicated rules and measures.
It is year-end 2013 and management at Gabriel Resources, a Canadian junior mining corporation, is attempting to handle investor relations and political tensions surrounding its Rosia Montana mine project in Romania. Recently, the Romanian Parliament voted overwhelmingly against granting the final permit for the gold and silver mine until a more thorough environmental and legal framework is established. Although the company promises that its project will bring significant financial benefits to the state and needed infrastructure improvements and employment in the region, both national and international civilian and non-governmental organizations have protested vociferously against a development that they see harming not only the fragile geographic ecosystem but also historical artifacts that have been a major tourist draw. The draft bill was set to allow the company to begin work on developing the potentially lucrative mine, which has been 15 years in the making and has not yet generated any revenues. Investors are worried and the company's share price is sinking. How can the company calm shareholder panic and negative stock price movement? What can it do to persuade the Romanian government and people to support the mine?
Much has been made of dysfunctional executive behavior in recent years. As such, the purpose of this article is to assist organizations in the design of executive work. To better construct a work environment that diminishes self-serving and unethical behavior, we propose that organizations structure an executive's work around three factors: the accountability environment, managerial discretion, and relationship composition. These factors are used to describe how organizations can better design executives' work so as to promote more desirable executive behavior. We describe how these factors should be calibrated, as well as how they affect each other.
Café Coffee Day (CCD) is the largest coffee retailer in India. In 2012, Starbucks entered the India market. This case explores CCD's competitive advantages, its analysis of Starbuck's entry strategy, and how it might respond to Starbucks' entry.
Pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) uses an innovative new approach to procuring outside legal counsel: it replaces relationship-based selection and law firms' traditional time-based billing with data-driven decision making and an online reverse auction. In the case, GSK is hit with a potentially devastating suit and must hire a firm in time to respond. The recently hired managing attorney, Sophia Keating, grapples with GSK's approach. The GSK veterans assure her that the approach drives down costs and improves the quality of work by systematically increasing the rigor in the procurement process. Still skeptical, Sophia runs the process of systematically analyzing and comparing the competing firms' bids. This case also describes the process by which these tools were created and adopted. Beyond the implications for law firms and other service providers, lessons from this case are applicable for teaching about institutional change, procurement processes relevant to many fields, and how to increase rigor in typically informal business processes.
In 2013, Anders Byriel, CEO of the family-owned Danish textiles company, Kvadrat, considered the firm's strategic plan. In 2000, Byriel and Mette Bendix, Kvadrat's Product Director, had taken over management of the company from their fathers, who had founded Kvadrat in the 1960s. Byriel and Bendix had joined Kvadrat in 1992, and since that time, Kvadrat had grown from €19 million in annual sales to over €86 million. It had expanded its focus on selling textiles to European architects and furniture manufactures, becoming a global company with a wide product range and a broad customer base. Kvadrat's internal organization had grown and transformed to support this larger business. Now Kvadrat's management team was focused on a number of key initiatives: expansion into Asia, improved sales trends in its curtain and Soft Cells businesses, development of Kvadrat's retail sales operations, the implementation of new Human Resources practices, and the execution of a new organizational design. Was such an extensive growth, turnaround, and internal development agenda feasible? And, were the initiatives being considered the right ones for Kvadrat?
IBM, through its corporate citizenship arm, demonstrated the role of business in partnership for change, conceiving of an organizational innovation in public education linking an employer, the New York City K-12 public education system, and the city's two-year colleges. P-TECH (Pathways in Technology Early College High School) was a new concept, a six-year high school running to grade 14, graduating students with a high school diploma and an associate's degree in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math). This case shows how the innovation developed and why it generated enormous public and media interest in less than a year. Results were strong: one-third of the first students entered below grade level, and soon many were taking college courses. P-TECH addresses a skills gap affecting U.S. competitiveness that quickly caught the attention of elected officials.
By 2013, Amazon had become one of the world's largest e-commerce players with over $60 billion in annual sales. Although its profitability had been uneven even after 18 years since its inception, its stock price had risen almost 17,000% since the company went public. During this time Amazon has spread its business across a variety of products and services that some see as unrelated. Was Amazon spreading itself too thin or were its investments positioning the company for the future?
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P-TECH, an innovation in public education conceived by IBM in partnership with the New York City K-12 public education system and the city's two-year colleges, had barely been underway when other cities and states wanted to replicate it. This case follows the reinvented six-year technology high school model to Chicago, where the Mayor championed five similar reinvented high schools, with five employer-partners including IBM, and with IBM's overall support, and back to New York City and State, as well as to Washington D.C. because of interest from President Obama. This case shows how an organizational innovation still in progress can be taken elsewhere and maintain essential ingredients while also accommodating local and state differences. It raises questions about the necessary conditions for diffusion and replication of innovation.
Describes sustainability efforts at Siemens since arrival of Chief Sustainability Officer, Barbara Kux, in 2008. Asks students to evaluate success of those efforts and outline what the company should do going forward.
This case explores the very different paths taken by the Ford Motor Company and the General Motors Corporation in the first three decades of the twentieth century. Henry Ford's Model T was a car for the masses. After considerable experimentation, Ford Motor perfected a mass production system that converted the vast majority of jobs in the factory into routine tasks. It pioneered the moving assembly line, and it pursued processes that became increasingly integrated and mechanized. While its single-minded focus on cost minimization led to spectacular market success for a time, the resulting inflexibility made it difficult for the company to respond to market changes. This created an opportunity for General Motors and others, particularly in the face of technological shifts to closed-body designs and metal stamping technology, as well as the marketing-led idea of the annual model change. The case offers a setting to examine several frameworks: exploration versus exploitation, the emergence of dominant designs, and vertical integration versus transaction costs and supplier hold-up. The (A) case closes with the question of what GM should do about supplier Fisher Body. The (B) case summarizes the shift to all-steel body stamping and engine manufacturing as the core technologies for automobile production, and how these changes made it difficult for Ford to maintain its first-mover advantage.
Café Coffee Day (CCD) is contemplating how to respond to the entry of Starbucks into the Indian coffee chain market. The case study describes the emergence of CCD as the leading coffee chain in India, with over 1,400 cafes in India. In early 2013, Starbucks, the world's leading coffee chain company, opened its first 11 outlets in India's metropolitan cities with local giant, Tata, and promises of a national roll out. CCD management debated whether there was plenty of room for both Starbucks and CCD in India's large growing market, or whether Starbucks' entry required CCD to respond more assertively.
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Capital markets may have overcapitalized the craft brewing industry during a flurry of new IPOs. In the context of this "hot" IPO market each individual company's valuation may seem reasonable. However, after careful analysis of each company's financial statement and upon consideration of analysts' forecasts of the industry's growth prospects, it is unclear whether the craft brewing industry is overcapitalized. This could be another "hot" then "crash" IPO industry, like biotech or the computer disk drive industry.
Chip Rae, director of recruiting at SG Cowen, must decide which recruits to keep after the final interview process for new outside associate hires. Along with team captains assigned to each school, he reviews the criteria used to make hiring decisions. Their new strategy is to look beyond the top 10 core business schools for the best of class in the top 25, avoiding people in the middle of their class. After some initial resistance, senior managers eventually see the wisdom of the new strategy.
The SAS Institute is a large, growing software company headquartered in the Research Triangle in North Carolina. Founded more than 25 years ago, it has evolved a unique approach, given its industry, to developing and retaining talent including using no stock options or phantom stock and not paying its salespeople on commission. The CEO and Vice President of Human Resources must decide how well their current management practices will continue to serve them as the company gains greater visibility and faces an increasingly competitive labor market.
It's a manager's perennial question: "How do I get an employee to do what I want?" The psychology of motivation is very complex, but the surest way of getting someone to do something is to deliver a kick in the pants--put bluntly, the KITA. Companies usually resort to positive KITAs, ranging from fringe benefits to employee counseling. But although a KITA might produce some change in behavior, it doesn't motivate. Frederick Herzberg, whose work influenced a generation of scholars and managers, likens motivation to an internal generator. An employee with an internal generator, he argues, needs no KITA. Achievement, recognition for achievement, the work itself, responsibility, and growth or advancement motivate people. The author cites research showing that those intrinsic factors are distinct from extrinsic, or KITA, elements that lead to job dissatisfaction. Jobs can be changed and enriched. Managers should focus on positions where people's attitudes are poor. The investment needed in industrial engineering is cost effective, and motivation will make a difference in performance.
Provides the reader with a basic understanding of organization structure. The first section provides a brief history of the main ideas pertaining to organization structure. The second section outlines some of the concepts and factors that must be taken into account while designing organization structure. Some of the prototypical forms of organization structure and their strengths and weaknesses are described in the third section. Finally, some emerging trends in how organizations are structured are discussed in the last section.
Motivation can be self-generating or the product of good management. Either way, motivation is an important part of performance management because simply having a common goal is not enough. A person may understand the goal at hand, but may not have the motivation to pursue it. This chapter outlines several theories of motivation. This chapter is excerpted from Harvard Business Essentials: Performance Management.
Retaining talent is an issue for any company whose success relies on the creativity and excellence of its employees. This is especially true for Cirque du Soleil, the spectacularly successful "circus without animals," whose 2,100 employees include 500 artists--mimes, clowns, acrobats, gymnasts, musicians, and production professionals. Managing a company full of creative people is a juggling act in itself, between keeping its artists happy and pursuing a successful strategy for attracting more business and talent.
Zappos was founded in 1999, during the Internet boom, to sell shoes online. The company's founding premise was to provide the ultimate in selection to its customers-all brands, styles, sizes, and colors. Zappos organized all aspects of its business (including recruiting, culture, call center, inventory, website, and supply chain) to provide the best possible service-it wanted to "wow" everyone who interacted with the company, from customers to employees to corporate partners. Zappos grew rapidly, and by 2008 was profitable with net sales (after returns) of about $650 million. The company faced a number of issues as it looked forward. While it had penetrated only about 3 percent of the U.S. market for shoes, Zappos had expanded its product lines to items such as camping gear and video games. It needed to determine those elements of its strategy had contributed to its success in shoes, and whether it would be able to duplicate that success in other product lines.
A synopsis of the writings of Edgar Schein, Modesto Maidique, and B.J. Zirger on what organizational culture is, where it comes from, how it can be changed, and how it inhibits change.
Traces changes in P&G's international strategy and structure, culminating in Organization 2005, a reorganization that places strategic emphasis on product innovation rather than geographic expansion and shifts power from local subsidiary to global business management. In the context of these changes introduced by Durk Jager, P&G's new CEO, Paolo de Cesare is transferred to Japan, where he takes over the recently turned-around beauty care business. Within the familiar Max Factor portfolio he inherits is SK-II, a fast-growing, highly profitable skin care product developed in Japan. Priced at over $100 a bottle, this is not a typical P&G product, but its successful introduction in Taiwan and Hong Kong has de Cesare thinking the brand has global potential. As the case closes, he is questioning whether he should take a proposal to the beauty care global business unit to expand into Mainland China and/or Europe.
The case contrasts the tradition-bound Old World wine industry with the market-oriented New World producers, the battle for the US market, the most desirable export target in 2009 due to its large, fast-growing, high-priced market segments. The case allows analysis of the way in which newcomers can change the rules of competitive engagement in a global industry. It also poses the question of how incumbents can respond, especially when constrained by regulation, tradition, and different capabilities than those demanded by changing consumer tastes and market structures.
When students have the English-language PDF of this Brief Case in a coursepack, they will also have the option to purchase an audio version. Alex Sander is a new product manager whose drive and talents are attractive to management, but whose intolerant style has alienated employees. This tension is presented against the backdrop of a 360° performance review process. Sander works in the Toiletries Division of Landon Care Products, which has recently been acquired by a European beauty company. Sander is leading the launch of a European skin care product into the U.S. market, which requires working with a multinational product development team. Sander's interactions with peers and direct reports in the case paint a picture of a tough, inflexible high achiever who uses temper as a management tool. At the end of the day, Sander's supervisor Sam Glass will provide Sander with 360° performance feedback-the first time this process has been used at Landon.
In January 2001, Mary Linn, vice president of finance for Ocean Carriers, a shipping company with offices in New York and Hong Kong, was evaluating a proposed lease of a ship for a three-year period, beginning in early 2003. The customer was eager to finalize the contract to meet his own commitments and offered very attractive terms. No ship in Ocean Carrier's current fleet met the customer's requirements. Mary Linn, therefore, had to decide whether Ocean Carriers should immediately commission a new capsize carrier that would be completed two years hence and could be leased to the customer.
When students have the English-language PDF of this Brief Case in a coursepack, they will also have the option to purchase an audio version. The senior vice president of project finance for a global oil and gas company must determine the weighted average cost of capital for the company as a whole and each of its divisions as part of the annual capital budgeting process. The case uses comparable companies to estimate asset betas for each operating division, and employs the Capital Asset Pricing Model to determine the cost of equity. Students are required to un-lever and re-lever betas and, choose an appropriate risk-free rate, and compute costs of debt and equity.
When students have the English-language PDF of this Brief Case in a coursepack, they will also have the option to purchase an audio version. In January 2007, West Coast Fashions, Inc., a large designer and marketer of branded apparel, announced a strategic reorganization that would result in the divestiture of their wholly owned footwear subsidiary, Mercury Athletic. John Liedtke, the head of business development for Active Gear, a mid-sized athletic and casual footwear company, saw the potential acquisition of Mercury as a unique opportunity to roughly double the size of his business. The case uses the potential acquisition of Mercury Athletic as a vehicle to teach students basic DCF (discounted cash flow) valuation using the weighted average cost of capital (WACC). Debt-Free Cash Flow Projections, Terminal Values, Non-operating Assets, Valuation, Operating Projections, Enterprise and Equity Value, Sensitivity Analysis, Acquisition, Weighted Average Cost of Capital, United States, Footwear, Athletic Apparel, Footwear
Gives students the opportunity to explore how a company uses the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) to compute the cost of capital for each of its divisions. The use of Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) formula and the mechanics of applying it are stressed.Gives students the opportunity to explore how a company uses the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) to compute the cost of capital for each of its divisions. The use of Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) formula and the mechanics of applying it are stressed.
Topics Covered Include: Capital Budgeting, Discounted Cash Flows, Project Risk, Net Present Value, Payback Period, Project Finance, Discount Rate, Resource Allocation, Internal Rate of Return, and Capital Rationing In this single-player simulation, students act as members of the Capital Committee of New Heritage Doll Company, tasked with selecting and allocating capital across the company's three divisions. Students evaluate a diverse set of competing investment proposals and make decisions regarding 27 separate proposals over a five-year period. Students confront a range of project types including replacement investments, expansion investments, investments in mutually exclusive projects, interdependent projects, and projects with growth options. To evaluate them, students examine outlays, cash flow patterns, and common metrics such as NPV, IRR, and Payback, with or without capital constraints.
This case is accompanied by a Video Short that can be shown in class or included in a digital coursepack. Instructors should consider the timing of making the video available to students, as it may reveal key case details. Zipcar is a start-up organized around the idea of "sharing" car usage via a membership organization. This case describes several iterations of the Zipcar business model and financial plan. These iterations include a very early version and a version developed just prior to the launch of the business, as well as data from the first few months of operations. Students are called on to analyze the underlying economics and business model for the venture and to discover how these assumptions are holding up as the business is actually rolled out.
This case is accompanied by a Video Short that can be shown in class or included in a digital coursepack. Instructors should consider the timing of making the video available to students, as it may reveal key case details. Outlines alternative mechanisms for getting into business. Shows the means by which an experienced entrepreneur can gain control over the necessary resources in order to lower the fixed costs of business entry. Provides a mechanism for discussing the role of experience, credibility, and contacts in the development of a nonbusiness venture.
Describes the primary elements and defining characteristics of a company's business model from the perspective of an entrepreneur. Introduces several analytic techniques and provides illustrative examples of business models to support the analytic framework presented.
Four venture capitalists from leading Silicon Valley firms are interviewed about the frameworks they use to evaluate potential venture opportunities. Questions include: How do you evaluate the venture's prospective business model? What due diligence do you conduct? What is the process through which funding decisions are made? What financial analyses do you perform? What role does risk play in your evaluation? and How do you think about a potential exit route? Russell Siegelman, partner at Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers; Sonja Hoel, managing director at Menlo Ventures; Fred Wang, general partner at Trinity Ventures; and Robert Simon, director at Alta Partners, are interviewed.
Judging by all the hoopla surrounding business plans, you'd think the only things standing between would-be entrepreneurs and spectacular success are glossy five-color charts, bundles of meticulous-looking spreadsheets, and decades of month-by-month financial projections. Yet nothing could be further from the truth. In fact, often the more elaborately crafted a business plan, the more likely the venture is to flop. Why? Most plans waste too much ink on numbers and devote too little to information that really matters to investors. The result? Investors discount them. In "How to Write a Great Business Plan," William A. Sahlman shows how to avoid this all-too-common mistake by ensuring that your plan assesses the factors critical to every new venture; the people--the individuals launching and leading the venture and outside parties providing key services or important resources; the opportunity--what the business will sell and to whom, and whether the venture can grow and how fast; the context--the regulatory environment, interest rates, demographic trends, and other forces shaping the venture's fate; and risk and reward--what can go wrong and right, and how the entrepreneurial team will respond. Timely in this age of innovation, "How to Write a Great Business Plan" helps you give your new venture the best possible chances for success.
As Facebook topped one billion monthly users in October 2012, the online social network continued to face questions about how best to monetize its surging traffic. The company could invest further in new advertising products, which represented the majority of the revenue thus far, or concentrate on the Facebook Platform and help third-party developers create and distribute their own applications. After a highly anticipated yet largely disappointing initial public offering (IPO), Facebook's stock price steadily declined. It became critical for the Facebook team to identify sustainable growth opportunities, particularly as more of its user base accessed the site via mobile devices.
Presents challenges facing Wal-Mart during its move into Germany. Explores the dynamics of the German retail market.
In the final years of the 20th century, the world was hit by a plague of epidemic proportions--AIDS, a life-threatening disease that remained stubbornly immune to any cure or vaccine. In the developed nations of the West, AIDS was slowly brought under control through a combination of education, prevention, and cutting-edge medicines. But in the developing world, where health care expenditures were often paltry, AIDS continued to rampage. By the year 2000, 25 million people in Africa alone were infected with the disease. Millions had already died. Nearly all of the medicines that treated AIDS had been developed--at great expense--by the major western pharmaceutical firms.
After its 2009-2010 fiscal crisis shook the euro, could the Greek government stabilize debt, avoid default, and stay on the euro? This case looks at the Greek social and political road to fiscal crisis; the economics of that crisis and efforts to recover from it; the danger the crisis posed to the euro; cooperation and conflict among European states, the European Central Bank, and the International Monetary Fund to try to help Greece emerge from crisis; and the role financial markets played in these events.
Companies routinely overestimate the attractiveness of foreign markets. Dazzled by the sheer size of untapped markets, they lose sight of the difficulties of pioneering new, often very different territories. The problem is rooted in the analytic tools (the most prominent being country portfolio analysis, or CPA) that managers use to judge international investments. By focusing on national wealth, consumer income, and people's propensity to consume, CPA emphasizes potential sales, ignoring the costs and risks of doing business in a new market. Most of these costs and risks result from the barriers created by distance. "Distance," however, does not refer only to geography; its other dimensions can make foreign markets considerably more or less attractive.
Starting as a modest 20-bed hospital, Aravind had grown into a 1,400-bed hospital complex by 1992. It had by then screened 3.65 million patients and performed 335,000 cataract surgeries, nearly 70% of them free of cost for the poorest of India's blind population. Aravind's founder, Dr. Venkataswamy, now 74 years old, had a goal to spread the Aravind model to every nook and corner of India, Asia, and Africa. The case sets the stage for developing such a plan of action.
Can 7-Eleven United States replicate the successful experience of 7-Eleven Japan in selling fresh foods through convenience stores? Describes the Japanese system and shows the steps the company is taking to try to achieve the same success in the United States.
In the wake of major competitive moves, CEO Tim Koogle and his senior team at Yahoo!, an Internet portal, must decide whether and how to adjust their strategy. Following deals between AOL and Netscape, Excite and @Home, Infoseek and Disney, and Snap and NBS, Yahoo! faces the prospect of being the last portal without a significant partner. Students must grapple with the benefits and costs of integration in the rapidly changing world of the Internet. Special emphasis is given to the interactions among Yahoo!'s functions and the effects of those interactions on firm flexibility
Examines the dynamic relationship between two complementors: Intel and Microsoft. Set in 1995, the case asks how Intel and Microsoft should solve a serious division between the two companies that threatens the health of the PC industry.
The first ten pages of the case 'Walt Disney Co.: The Entertainment King' are comprised of the company's history, from 1923 to 2001. The Walt years are described, as is the company's decline after his death and its resurgence under Eisner. The last five pages are devoted to Eisner's strategic challenges in 2001: managing synergy, managing the brand, and managing creativity. Students are asked to think about the keys to Disney's mid-1980s turnaround, about the proper boundaries of the firm, and about what Disney's strategy should be beyond 2001.
The case 'Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.' focuses on the evolution of Wal-Mart's remarkably successful discount operations and describes the company's more recent attempts to diversify into other businesses. The company has entered the warehouse club industry with its Sam's Clubs and the grocery business with its Supercenters, a combination supermarket and discount store. Wal-Mart experienced a drop in the value of its stock price in early 1993, which it still has not made up. Wal-Mart has advantages over its competitors in areas such as distribution, information technology, and merchandising, to name a few.
Examines Wal-Mart's development over three decades and provides financial and descriptive detail of its domestic operations. In 2003, Wal-Mart's Supercenter business has surpassed its domestic business as the largest generator of revenues. Its international operation seems poised to become the next growth driver for the company as it marches toward the trillion dollar sales mark. But problems are starting to surface even as the company is winning recognition as the number one company in the Fortune 500--unions keep pressuring its minimum-wage employees and allegations of gender discrimination are alleged. Teaching purpose: To introduce students to creating a competitive advantage.
Tesco, a supermarket chain, has been transformed from a third-rate retailer to a global leader in the past ten years. This case describes how that was accomplished. Interviews with Tesco employees explain the company's approach to understanding customers, motivating employees, succeeding on the Internet, and creating an international strategy.
Tesco’s chairman has resigned in disgrace. The company’s market value has more than halved to an 11-year low as it acknowledged overstating profits by hundreds of millions of dollars. And a humbled Warren Buffett, after opportunistically raising his stake in the company after a surprise profit warning, confessed to CNBC: “I made a mistake on Tesco. That was a huge mistake by me.” Indeed. Britain’s biggest supermarket chain has not only seen its fortunes erode but its reputation for competitiveness, creativity and integrity collapse. Even before its accounting travails, a former chairman had sharply criticized former CEO Sir Terry Leahy, who had led Tesco to market dominance and worldwide admiration, for leaving a shambles of a legacy. Leahy’s immediate successor resigned in July; his successor from Unilever now confronts more of a turnaround than he had ever expected.
Sunrise's CEO must decide whether to intervene in a decision by a division, Guardian Products, to introduce a new lightweight standard wheelchair. Guardian wants to introduce the wheelchair to complement its line of commodity crutches, walkers, and other patient aids. If introduced, the new wheelchair will compete with an existing product offered by the largest and most profitable Sunrise division, Quickie Designs. The CEO hesitates to take action because he does not want to disrupt a precedent of total divisional autonomy that is integral to Sunrise's culture.
Mike Ramsey, TiVo's CEO, must decide on which direction to build the company. Facing an onslaught of new competitors, a huge opportunity in the cable industry, and the possibility of becoming the new "user interface" for TV entertainment, Ramsey must balance the demands for profitability with the hope of driving TiVo to mass adoption.
In the late 1990s, TiVo pioneered the digital video recorder (DVR), a new consumer electronics category. By 2005, the company was the clear leader in technology and installed base. It had also built extraordinary loyalty among its customers. However, TiVo lost a half billion dollars since its founding and was now facing new, fierce competition from satellite and cable providers. Explores the strategic challenges facing TiVo and the potential strategic options for fending off its competitive threats and reversing its financial fortunes.